doi:10.1108/EL-04-2012-0041, Chia-chen, C. H. C., & Chen, C. (2014). Construct validity was achieved by ensuring that all the terms used were operationally defined. With technology and economic upheaval changing education forever, people are learning to move forward in a vastly changed world. Having enough and skilled staff in the necessary areas as per the specific needs of the library users is vital. In his theory, Rogers emphasized the following: •        Significant learning takes place when the subject matter is relevant to the personal interests of the student, •        Learning which is threatening to the self (e.g., new attitudes or perspectives) are more easily assimilated when external threats are at a minimum, •        Learning proceeds faster when the threat to the self is low. LONDON, Aug. 10, 2020 – Pearson, the world's learning company, today said more than three out of every four learners globally say the COVID-19 pandemic has fundamentally changed education as we know it. In order to make this information meaningful to the learner, self initiated information seeking behavior should be employed. 13, Issue 2, pp. On web accessibility, the paper concluded that the websites were not accessible by learners with visual impairment. The findings of this study are not different from a study conducted earlier. Survey of Technology and Internet Access We are assessing the needs of our students for instruction at home. How successful is the use of adaptive technology on the e-platform? What are the literacy levels of students and staff in assistive technology? 87-102 ICT accessibility and usability to support learning of visually-impaired students in Tanzania Innosencia Eligi Tanzania Library Services Board Kelefa Mwantimwa University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania ABSTRACT We believe that wherever learning flourishes so do people. Covid-19: Education’s Revolution. In the Landmark survey, 9 percent of offices reported budget decreases, 17 percent reported staff reductions and 19 percent reported that their budgets were inadequate to meet needs, regardless of whether budgets were cut. This 2007 study from the vendor’s perspective influenced the authors to conduct their own test using learners with print disabilities. Considering ‘good’ as the bench mark, the staff skills in AT was not sufficient as per the findings. The increasing provision of Web-based information resources has moved from a simple text interface to dynamic and interactive de­signs. However, in addi­tion to this, the information provided on screen must be presented in a way that can be interpreted by any kind of access technology. Data collection technique: for the questionnaires, personal administration with on-the-spot-collection method was used. Sample size: For the purpose of external validity of this study, the study population formed the sample. doi:10.1108/EL-03-2012-0031. The study also recommends that the library users with visual impairment should be provided with awareness about the availability on request of e-information literacy trainings. This could be attributed to lack of staff support through seminars and workshops on assistive technology. A study carried out in Canada by (Dermody & Majekodunmi, 2011) established out that there is no doubt that technology has opened the door for learners with disabilities. The reliability coefficient that was obtained from the pilot study was accepted since it attained a coefficient (0.75) which the researcher considered reasonable based on Orodho (2009). Information providers should only facilitate this process by ensuring that the right equipments are provided to them; assistive technology and skills on the use of assistive technology; as well as information retrieval skills. Technologies such as e-portfolios or blogs can enable learners to gain feedback from multiple audiences, reflect on their ongoing development, and make sense of their learning. In order to achieve the above mentioned objective the research sought to find out whether user education specific to accessing electronic resources was given to users with visual impairment. Technology can provide the means for a blind or partially sighted per­son to overcome barriers such as the need to read print, use a computer, take notes and communicate both on paper and electronically. 4, pp. "English Language Learners (ELLs) are an educational priority in the United States as the country has become part of the global community because of technology and the interconnectedness of our cultures. Research Design: The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. With this background, the researcher sought to find out the rating of staff skills in AT. They noted that from screen readers to augmentative communication programs, persons with disabilities can attend classes, participate in discussions, and read and write assignments independently. However if the available AT present does not tally with the number of students who are expected to use, then the available AT could be termed not useful as attributed to the stated speculation. While database and website design is evolving to the benefit of users who have vision, the contradiction is that their enriched features which create greater accessibility to information also creates barriers for learners who rely on screen readers (Dermody, 2011). These findings confirm similar findings by Mittermeyer and Quirion (2003) and Nowcki (2003) which demonstrated that students as a general population have significant limited knowledge of the basic elements of research and database searching. Those findings appear in the second annual Global Learner Survey, which captures the opinions and views of learners worldwide. However the article by Power and LeBeau (2009) suggests that academic reference librarians can provide students who use screen readers training sessions on how to navigate library databases. By continuing, you're agreeing to use of cookies. (2009) as cited in (Nández & Borrego, 2014) showed that scholars’ use of electronic information has increased substantially over time as academic libraries transit from print to electronic collections. Offered by University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Doiron (2011) as cited in (Chaudhry, 2014) pointed out that reading materials in new electronic format is opening up new opportunities to bring reading to more people and suggested that schools and libraries should take advantage of this situation to promote reading. Using a word processor can help students to complete work that is more organized and includes less … Target population: All learners with visual impairment in Kenyatta University and staff members who served or offered information literacy skills to the users with visual impairment. With the rapid development of information technology and near-universal access to the internet, people are increasingly doing more of their reading and information gathering on computers rather than in printed books (Chia-chen & Chen, 2014). The student should participate fully in the process of searching for information and have control over the type of information sought and the entire searching process. Further research in the area of web accessibility by learners with specific visual impairments (Blind, Low vision) was also recommended. This could be attributed to the students’ background from the primary, secondary level or the parents’ ability to facilitate the training for the students in assistive technology before joining university. This is an indication that assistive technology is a useful skill to those that have acquired it and therefore can be specifically very useful in facilitating easy access to electronic information resources. However, if the technologies fail to match the needs of end-users, they can turn into a new barrier for PWDs. This can be through offering access skills, AT skills and creating accessible websites. As they come to terms with this new reality, learners want schools and governments to address inequality in the learning experience, and desire digital skills they believe they will need to thrive in the new economy. A significant number indicated that the available assistive technology was useful. ICT have become the most suitable tool, in the field of education, to enhance independence and equal opportunities for all. We combine world-class educational content and assessment, powered by services and technology, to enable more effective teaching and personalized learning at scale. In addition, this will make them remain irrelevant in the current knowledge society. Study location: The study was conducted in Kenyatta University Post Modern Library. While this move has provided people with a more creative and flexible experience, there are dangers that some people will be excluded because they cannot use standard methods of access. To establish the literacy levels of students and staff in assistive technology. The researcher also found it necessary to find out information concerning the rating of the students’ assistive technology skills. According to Rogers, learning is facilitated when: (1) the student participates completely in the learning process and has control over its nature and direction, (2) it is primarily based upon direct confrontation with practical, social, personal or research problems, and (3) self-evaluation is the principal method of assessing progress or success. In line with the implementation of Flexible Learning Options, this Office requests the teachers especially the class adviser to facilitate our learners in accomplishing the Technology Accessibility Survey through this link bit.ly/DasmaTS2020.This will support the implementation of future endeavors relative to said intervention. The UN Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities, article 21 asserts that “State Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that persons with disabilities can exercise the right to freedom of expression and opinion, including the freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas on an equal basis with others and through all forms of communication of their choice ...” (Javier & Calvo, 2014). Reviewing the recent past, it can be seen that sharing method of resources of academic researches were printed references. OK Question Title * 1. The study also recommends that the library and information providers lays down strategies of ensuring that the use of assistive technology on the e-platform is not challenged. This is a good policy consideration by the library management when recruiting staff to serve at the section for users with special needs in future. The study recommends that the library should design a AT training program for learners with visual impairments as well as conducting regular and one on one training sessions. Horwath (2002) surveyed users who were blind or visually impaired on the usability of four databases and found that the design had the greatest impact on the accessibility of the databases. In relation to the lack of teacher knowledge, Abner and Lahn (2002) found in their survey in Kentucky of teachers of learners with visual impairments that the teachers did not, in general, feel competent to teach assistive technology. The researcher found it necessary to find out whether the available assistive technology at the Post Modern Library was useful to the students with visual impairments. In order to explore whether the students with visual impairments found it easy to access and use e-resources or not, the researcher posed a statement that “it is easy to access and use e-resources” and the respondents were asked to indicate the level at which they agreed or disagreed to the statement. doi:10.1108/EL-06-2012-0070. According to Brophy & Craven (2014), “Design for all” in a information centre environment basically means that information centre information technology (IT) systems and interfaces must be designed in a way that enables them to be read and interacted easily by all users of the information centre, whether they are physically visiting the information centre itself or accessing it remotely and regardless of any disability or access preference they may have. Ekwelem, V. O. As previously indicated, awareness in assistive technology may not mean ability to use. However, Research has shown that people with disabilities are most at risk of being excluded from access, and in particular people who are blind or visually impaired and who use assistive technologies such as screen readers (Brophy & Craven, 2014). These computer-related aids and equipment are commonly known as “assistive,” “adaptive,” “access,” or “enabling” technology. Therefore the necessity of this study was inevitable especially in this digital era of the information society. Pearson conducted the study during the pandemic with Harris Insights & Analytics, giving learners in seven countries the opportunity to voice their opinions on primary, secondary and higher education; and careers and the future of work. The study also concluded that the success of using assistive technology on the e-platform is challenged. research instrument adequately covered the area being studied. Now in its second year, Pearson’s Global Learner Survey is the most comprehensive global public opinion survey of its kind. Student response to e-books : study of attitude toward reading among elementary school children in Kuwait. (2014). Think about an adult learner that simply uses Microsoft Windows® and only uses the built in web browser (Internet Explorer®): How would this affect them? How to use technology to provide stretch and challenge for all learners Objective. Aim. Often people will use a combination of the above technologies to enable them to read electronic print. Learn more Close this message and continue, Working and learning online during a pandemic, Committed to Equity and Opportunity for All Learners, Financial results and Annual Reports and Accounts, Investor Relations and Financial Media contacts, UN Sustainable Development Goals and Pearson. Online platforms like web pages are sources of information. The article by Power and LeBeau (2009) supports this and suggests that academic reference information providers can provide learners who use screen readers training sessions on how to navigate information centre databases. In the light of the stated reasons of not receiving user education on accessing e-resources; the low number of e-resource access literacy could be attributed to unavailable logistical provisions in such trainings that could accommodate those library users with visual impairments. B., & Maatta, S. L. (2014). Web survey powered by SurveyMonkey.com. With the library being a key provider of information especially to students with visual impairment, there is need therefore to keenly explore web accessibility and use of assistive technology in accessing these e-resources by learners with visual impairment. Ie more users and more use. This was a significant number, close to half of the students involved in the study. Nández, G., & Borrego, A. Laptop computers and tablet devices are beneficial for students with learning disabilities because they are portable and lightweight. For students with handwriting difficulties, being able to take notes on a laptop or computerized device (such as an iPad) can improve the quantity and quality of the notes (Vaughn & Bos, 2009). For quantitative methods, descriptive statistics was used while thematic analysis approach was used to analyze qualitative data. Service provision is a very important aspect in a library setting. Reliability: to ensure reliability, the questionnaires were pre-tested. Coonin, B. Whether a material or technology is designed from the start to be accessible for all learners or is made accessible for learners with disabilities, it is considered AEM. Misc., April 30 2020. 25 No. The specific objectives were: To establish the literacy levels of students and staff in adaptive technology (AT), to find out whether the information websites are accessible to learners with visual impairment, to describe the successes in using assistive technology on the e-platform, and to describe the training offered to learners with visual impairment on access to e-resources. The findings contradict earlier findings by (Carney, 2003) which showed that the use of computers is particularly important to students with visual impairments, as their ability to use written communication can be enhanced and access to information improved. AHEAD is delighted to release 'Learning from Home During Covid-19: A Survey of Irish FET and HE Students with Disabilities' - a report gathering the findings of an AHEAD survey of learners with disabilities. This is a reason good enough for the low usage of e-resources by students with visual impairment in the postmodern library. This could be due to the fact that many of the students lacked knowledge on how to use assistive technology available in the library like screen readers. Do you have access to a hotspot or WI-FI at home? The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed a specification that attempts to address learners' profiling: the IMS Learner Information Profile (IMS LIP) . The study was carried out at Kenyatta University-Post Modern Library, and the population comprised of 80 learners and 5 staff members. There were 80 learners with visual impairment and 5 staff members serving them. Many students stated that there was no such organized training at the section for users with special needs. (2002), “Accessibility and usability of web-based information centre databases for non-visual users”, Information centre Hi Tech, Vol. Questionnaires with both open and closed ended questions were used to collect data from the learners while structured interviews were conducted for the staff. The findings were as described below: Majority stated that they lacked awareness on provision of such training at the library. Following the journal article by Areej Ahmed there is a critical view represented on the subjectivity of assistive technology. The findings were: both staff and users with visual impairment had average skills in assistive technology on the e-platform; information websites were not accessible by learners with visual impairment; use of assistive technology to access e-resources was challenged and that learners lacked adequate skills in accessing e-resources using AT. Inside Higher Ed recently published a news piece about a case pending against Miami Univerity (OH), for having a website and using software that are inaccessible to students with disabilities. doi:10.1108/EL-02-2012-0022. It is vital for students to benefit, on an equal basis, from rapid development of ICTs to enter an inclusive and barrier-free Information Society. Rogers, C.R (1983). How many times do we here “Apple® is better than Android®” or “Microsoft® has the advantage over Apple®”? This study therefore seeks to explore whether the web content is accessible to learners with visual impairment and what are the implications of this accessibility on information access which further influences their participation in the knowledge society. The main reasons given were those given below: The reasons given still revolve around the point of knowledge of using AT and adequacy of the available AT for use by the users with visual impairment. She asked the students to state the reasons why they found AT available not useful. To support the effectiveness of assistive technology, a survey of people with disabilities was conducted by The National Council on Disability (Berry & Ignash, 2003). Carney, S. (2003). This is in line with findings by Carney (2003) that appropriate selection of devices and technology, and subsequent training, is crucial for ensuring proper use of such devices. Assistive technologies used by individuals who are blind are costly and accessible materials, such as popular books and textbooks, are slow to be developed (Stephanie et al., 2014). Power, R. and LeBeau, C. (2009), “How well do academic information centre web sites address the needs of database users with visual disabilities?”, The Reference Librarian,Vol. We are the world’s learning company with more than 24,000 employees operating in 70 countries. For those who indicated that the available assistive technology was not useful, the researcher further sought to know why they were not useful and yet AT was at least available. With assistive technology being a practical skill, the ‘good’ rating could be attributed to continued usage of these skills through the available avenues like at the library. (2007) indicated in their study that vendors are not addressing accessibility in their marketing efforts. On the basis of the cited research results, this study sought to find out the situation at Kenyatta University Post Modern Information centre, in availability of assistive technology and its use. Data analysis: Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to analyze the collected data. Learners who rely on screen readers experience barriers accessing information due to their rich graphical interfaces and complex web designs of proprietary online databases. After completing this module, you will be able to: - add elements of stretch and challenge to a learning or assessment activity - identify situations and contexts where this will improve the learning experience and outcomes of given individuals and groups Working with the Digital Learner 20 No. Others stated that the user education was given using a projector and were not able to benefit since they were visually challenged. “Learners are resilient, so they are learning and moving forward in new ways to seize that opportunity, no matter what the future holds.”. By doing this, the external threats to electronic information access are minimized. After analysis, tables and graphs were used to present quantitative data while qualitative data was presented in textual mode. To the learner, placed in a classroom where they’re learning new concepts, sitting in tests and evaluations, and having to navigate a new social environment, the addition of technology can often feel more like a burden […] Developments in technology have transformed both face-to-face and online learning. Merrill Publishing Company. In the past, distance learners received weighty workbooks via post. 2, pp. This could also be attributed to peer teaching on assistive technology by those who already have the skills. doi:10.1108/EL-01-2013-0012, Web Accessibility and Use of Assistive Technology in Accessing E-Resources by Learners with Visual Impairments, http://www.sasked.gov.sk.ca/k/pecs/se/publications.html, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY 4.0), East African Journal of Information Science. For instance, the advances in Web 2.0 and the new virtual learning environment does not always take into consideration whether or not it is compatible with the assistive technology learners rely on (Dermody & Majekodunmi, 2011). and Chambers, M.B. The total of those who supported this by disagreeing to the statement that ‘there was enough assistive technology in the library’ was 68.1% constituting the majority. Digitization initiatives and special information centres in India. The Electronic Information centre, 32(2), 221–238. Relationships between SRS adoption attitude, learning approaches, and learning outcomes in higher-order thinking & learning and collaborative learning were analyzed with a … In a study carried out by Dermody (2011) the students were forced to abandon articles because of technological barriers and this limited the amount of resources they could use to write their assignments. 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