The decision to develop and use key performance indicators … Many higher education KPIs are mandatory, like the metrics required by IPEDS for any college or university that wants to participate in federal student funding programs. Key performance indicators … Multiple key performance indicators in higher education boards will ensure progress in efficiency and effectiveness. From the downsizing at Western Illinois University to the closure of Wheelock College, declining enrollments are affecting institutions and students across the country. Student Affairs Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) are a set of data points identified by the division as specific measures of success. Higher education institutions manage better the things they measure. Departmental indicators can create gaps if they are not accompanied by metrics that measure risk and activity outcomes that are core to the success of the institution as a whole. These changes are merely at the beginning stages of new expectations for rating higher education institutions. After monitoring this KPI for a certain period of time, the department can determine if these courses should be eliminated or merged into other sections. the education and training kpi dictionary 170 key performance indicator definitions Nov 12, 2020 Posted By Frank G. Slaughter Ltd TEXT ID 6832e876 Online PDF Ebook Epub Library eligible orders key performance indicators or kpis for training managers are essential to achieve best enactment and to have a higher … A common KPI here is first year to third year retention rates. The modern approach will not only provide an institution-wide assessment of achievement, but it will also highlight and target areas for continuous improvement. Proving value and analyzing performance starts by identifying your key performance indicators (KPIs). Performance Framework for Higher Education3 published in 2013. It’s in everyone’s best interest to implement a higher education data analytics platform that can do all of this heavy lifting for you. Before the recession of 2008, it was generally assumed that higher education institutions were performing well in most, if not every regard. To start with, it’s important to review the board’s goals and strategic plan. Of notable mention is that key performance indicators aren’t goals in their own right. Appropriate metrics should measure the end outcome because they provide a better indicator of how students may or may not be successful in the real world after their college days are over. Think of it this way: It’s one thing to say, “I want to lose weight,” but what does that mean? How to develop key performance indicators in higher education institution, especially medical schools? Key Performance indicators are very important for measuring performance and progress … When the economy is strong — like it is now — enrollments decline, and the projected decreases in high school graduates are adding…, Data is the lifeblood of decision making in higher education, but colleges and universities have long faced barriers when it comes to accessing and utilizing it for their benefit. Dashboard indicators consist of a variety of measures that generally are related to the strategic mission of the institution or to the specific office developing the dashboard. They are the gatekeepers of the data, and spend much of their time fielding research and report requests when they could be focusing their energies on more strategic action items. The measurements should provide results that compare to the institution’s goals and also measure increases or decreases in costs to achieve those outcomes. In higher education, KPIs must be identified and agreed upon by a college or university’s president, vice president, deans, researchers and sometimes certain committees. Other performance indicators linked to strategic goals can be developed from underlying departmental and inter-functional indicators and summarized on a balanced scorecard to reflect institution-wide key performance indicators. Instead of solely relying on placement test tests, AB 705 now requires community colleges to factor in high school grades and GPAs. We've … The need for a set of indicators to measure the performance of the higher education (HE) sector was much debated in the 1980s, and a relatively large number of potential indicators (at one point 88) … The U.S. Department of Education (Department) is the agency of the federal government that establishes policy for, administers and coordinates most federal assistance to education. Is one of your college’s goals this year to expand the nursing program? Inside Higher Ed reports that “first-generation students enroll and graduate at lower rates than do other students.” Looking at your graduation rates broken down by the first-generation cohort will tell you if this is true. Performance indicators are defined as factual or opLjon information gathered from existing data bases or de novo, about the functioning of organizations or their constituent units. Checking your classroom utilization metrics will show you the areas of campus that may be wasting utilities, while sustainability data can give you insights into where your emissions are highest. The traditional key performance indicator and scorecard method haven’t changed. Tracking instructional costs will help you better allocate faculty resources and avoid making arbitrary cuts. • A limited set of measures—usually referred to as “Key Performance Indicators”(or KPIs) • An integrated data structure for that set of measures • A source of comparative benchmarks for the measures • … While their reports are based on credible internal system reports, they don’t provide insight into the school’s performance as they relate to operational efficiency in achieving the greater strategic and mission goals. Keeping a close eye on this KPI will give you an idea of whether you made the right call. “With AB 705, we had new metrics to track: Students’ high school grades and GPAs,” said Jonathan Newnam, IT Business/Technical Analyst at American River College. … As you can see by the examples above, KPIs are really just a starting point. Boards should look to various departments within the institution such as finance, risk management, technology, compliance, etc. Of course, this will need to be evaluated to determine if it’s a feasible goal for the English department’s budget, and will require a team to develop a strategy to increase enrollments. While this can be done through the process of strategically choosing key performance indicators, and developing the right scorecard, it requires a different mindset and a willingness to be innovative. Graduation Rate: This KPI determines the number of students who completed their schooling or received a particular certificate or degree within the normal time frame. It’s definitely saved our research department time.”. A different approach to key performance indicators in higher education boards is needed to meet the expectations for understanding the overall college or university’s experience and outcomes. Check out our demo environment or sign up for a free version of our data analytics platform here. When rating higher education institutions, it’s important to consider the concept of output vs. outcomes. They include measures regarding revenues, expenditures, assets, liabilities, fund balances, and fund raising. And how quickly do you want to lose the weight? Two-year community colleges seem to have been hit hardest. Learn why 180k+ users are using BoardEffect for their board portal solution! To really see the benefits, institutions should make the following four steps a priority. Key performance indicators provide an adequate method for determining information like percentages of funds given by donors and percentages of students that fall within certain ranges of SAT scores. Scorecards bring context to the key performance indicators and link them together to produce a progress score that relates to a strategic goal. Can you cut costs by adding another course to a full-time professor’s schedule? Key information … Why do you want to lose weight? Higher education KPIs … KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS IN HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS - AVERAGE TIME OF COMPLETION A DEGREE. An example of a KPI in higher education is Student-to-Faculty Ratio. An automated software program will keep your data on demand for real-time views of KPIs like enrollments, faculty productivity, weekly student contact hours and more. Performance indicators are made up of at least two main elements; action verb and content (referent). KPIs are performance metrics that can be tracked, measured and analyzed. A blanket statement with no plan behind it will only set you up for failure. The truth is, out of the hundreds of indicators that you could track, there are only five that truly matter. In the very near future, key performance indicators and scorecard summaries will become an integral part of every higher education institution’s governance model as valuable tools to guide the institution toward its goals. Table 4.5 Indicator system for higher education in Tunisia 40 Table 5.1 From objectives to indicators in universities in France 49 Table 5.2 Main fi elds of indicators for universities in France 49 Table 6.1 Entry rate into higher education … The PISG was able to take account of the work of the Higher Education Management Statistics (HEMS) Group, which CVCP, SCOP, COSHEP and CSCFC constituted in 1995, following the earlier work of … Up until recently, higher education institutions have only broadly measured their overall performances. They provide signals for … When student-to-faculty ratios increase, the quality of the instruction could decline. The first edition of this book, with its thorough review of the key issues in the development of performance indicators, made an immediate impact on the expanding field of performance measurement in higher education. Despite the pressures on higher education to prove their worth to regulators, legislators, donors, students, and their parents, there is another very important reason to substantiate their performance. Ultimately, scorecard summaries should reflect key performance indicators as institutions that will provide a clearer vision of the institution’s success. The most talked about higher education KPIs right now are those related to enrollments. Low retention rates can be a sign that students are struggling. Key performance indicators provide an adequate method for determining information like percentages of funds given by donors and percentages of students that fall within certain ranges of SAT scores. Higher education has traditionally favored manual processes for many administrative tasks, from Excel spreadsheets to PDF reports. Do you want to lose one pound or 10? Higher Education 16: 393-405 (1987)? An institution’s strategic plan should paint a vivid picture of their goals and vision for the year, and this is where KPIs can play a significant role. To enhance the quality of higher education institutions (HEIs), key performance indicators (KPIs) must be explored and measured. The summary scorecard is an important measurement tool as it provides the context for key performance indicators or higher education boards. Make sure to explain the strategies and goals behind your KPIs to everyone involved to ensure that everyone is on the same page. When AB 705 was introduced in California, community colleges were forced to adjust their curriculum and placement processes. KPIs are performance metrics that can be tracked, measured and analyzed. With time and experience, institutions will be able to refine the key performance indicators to provide the most objective analysis possible to recoup the many benefits of their efforts for measuring and reporting their performance. “Since we started using Precision Campus, it’s lessened the bottleneck that often occurs,” said Newnam. The KPIs that colleges and universities can pull from is seemingly endless, but we’ve compiled some of the most common ones below as well as use case examples. Something that’s made that expectation so challenging is that many colleges and universities are still relying on key performance indicators that rate various parts of the institution’s performance, without regard to the whole. Get Board Governance best practices directly to your inbox! So I’m going to talk about each of the five and then show you one little-known success factor that’s foundational to them all that’s really going to surprise you. The first step in creating a dashboard, the selection of the indicators, is the most critical component. This is an evolving process that also allows for flexibility as goals and business models will certainly change over time. ... indicators and reporting through regular System Performance … “Since we’ve incorporated a model that bases placement off of high school GPAs, the number of students completing transfer-level English and math courses in their first year has increased substantially. ... enrolment countries and there are alarming differences in performance … Important key performance measures – definitions and calculations Analyzing the results and taking action Examples and discussion Conclusion Source material: In this presentation, McGladrey, LLP is summarizing information on ratios for higher education institutions made popular by the publication, “Ratio Analysis in Higher UK Performance Indicators (UKPIs) are statistics which compare universities and colleges against benchmarks for Widening participation, Non-continuation, and the Employment or further study of graduates.. Key … © 2019 Precision Campus. All educational organizations are different: they have their unique values and These are broken down into five categories: Using an instructional budgeting tool, you can compare the cost of employing part-time vs. full-time faculty members. The exact people involved will just depend on the extent to which the KPIs will be used — so specific metrics for an English department wouldn’t necessarily require input from the dean of psychology. The U.S. Department of Education’s College Scorecard also aggregates metrics and presents them in an easy-to-read format for prospective students. Taking a different approach to evaluating higher education institutions requires taking a different approach to metrics to demonstrate progress toward broad goals and prove the kind of accountability and transparency that regulators, legislators, and other stakeholders are looking for. Financial key performance indicators don’t supply enough information on their own accord. Read on to dive into topics like: 4 Ways Higher Education Can Make the Most of Their KPIs. They should be part of a scorecard that also weighs additional indicators such as stock performance, academics, reputation and performance measures, facilities, service excellence ratings, risk exposure, etc. This paper introduces THEQM, the Teaching in Higher Education Quality Model and defines a large number of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) that can be used to monitor the adherence of an … A goal in this instance could be to increase section fill rates by 20% within the next two years. By changing the metrics, financial key performance indicators could provide one score that encompasses market position, academic reputation, risk exposure, overall effectiveness, student services, research services, and support. You can also use your course success rates KPI to identify areas where these student may be struggling on a more granular level. Past methods more heavily rated activity based on achievements in each department. Higher education collects an exorbitant amount of information that can be used to measure the performance of students, faculty, facilities and the institution as a whole, but where do educators even begin? KPIs are not goals themselves — they are the tools you need to understand and measure success. Looking to create a “greener” campus? No matter the KPI, Precision Campus is here for all of your data tracking needs. KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS OF ACCOUNTABILITY. But institutions have too much data to manually collect, manage and analyze the information necessary to track KPIs. If an English department is seeing steady declines in certain courses, they can use the year-over-year enrollment KPI to see exactly when the enrollments are dropping and by how much. The selected key performance indicators have to be integrated in the EDSS model repository in form of one model for each KPI. While that’s not a bad starting point, by making some modifications in the key performance indicator and scorecard summary process, we can glean a better indication of the overall performance of the institution. Key Performance Indicator Progress Report Measuring Progress on the University Strategic Plan. Most activities will have more than one key performance indicator. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers (Kluwer), Dordrecht - Printed in the Netherlands 393 Performance indicators in higher education ROBERT BALL & JALIL HALWACHI … With the dawn of cloud computing, Eric recognized the opportunity to combine his expertise with the latest technology to support the modern-day campus’ needs and solve many of their previously unsolvable challenges. If so, a goal might be to increase six-year graduation rates for first-generation students. A “KPI” is a Key Performance Indicator, or in other words something that we can track or measure. Before anything, you need to set firm goals and targets. How Public College Boards Can Best Approach Evaluations, Open Meetings, Closed Sessions: Executive Session as a Tool, For-Profit Healthcare Organizations vs. Not-for-Profit Healthcare Organizations. Think of the burden that falls on your institutional research department without an analytics program. Specifically, it’s important to track progress as it pertains to the strategic goals of the institution. The expected behavior must be specified by name, using an observable action verb such as … Boards need a way to rate the performance of the entire institution in achieving its mission. The change in expectations is something that higher education institutions are still getting used to and it will take some time before we’ll see these kinds of results across the board. KPIs are hosted at a single application dashboard. In the past, if all the key performance indicators at the department level were strong, it translated into overall institutional success. Yet, little is known about the key performance indicators … to contribute tools that will help them set appropriate key performance indicators. Over time, KPIs like enrollments, course success rates and passing rates for licensing exams will show whether the expansion was a success. Margarida Mano University of Coimbra, Faculty of Economics [email protected] Rodrigo Lourenço Polytechnic Institute of Setúbal, School of Technology [email protected] Abstract: Portuguese Law 107/2008 specifies the obligation for Higher Education … It’s been a key indicator that AB 705 is working.”. You’ll need KPIs to establish a baseline of how the program was performing before the expansion, and then track the performance of the program after the expansion. College and university boards are facing a multitude of new issues in an ever-changing environment.…, Have you ever been to an open meeting where something came out into public view…, Most of us schedule our doctor’s appointments and visit the emergency room without thinking about…, AboutBoard PortalContact SupportDo Not Sell My Personal InformationToll Free:  1 (866) 966-4987, ©BOARDEFFECT 2019 •  ALL RIGHTS RESERVED •  PRIVACY POLICY. continuous improvement and quality in the culture of higher education, and to blend traditional accreditation with the philosophy and techniques of the Baldrige Performance Excellence Program. It helps the president execute education … Are students making it past their first year, or are they dropping out or transferring to different institutions? Looking at this progress report, it’s evident that NEIU has a clear focus on their goals and how certain KPIs will help them get there. Key performance indicators should come from the functional disciplines and departments such as an assessment of financial aid opportunities, the market position of the university, etc. All Rights Reserved. It’s essentially a different way of looking at things. Keeping track of retention rates can help you dive deeper and strategize ways to increase student persistence. In addition, the board should evaluate key performance indicators for risks as part of the overall picture. Current higher education data collection systems are difficult to use and struggle to keep up with trends. The University Strategic Plan consists of six strategic goals and thirty-eight action steps. Northeastern Illinois University (NEIU) maintains a public KPI progress report, including a list of their target values and upcoming measurement dates. But simply stating that you’d like to increase enrollments isn’t specific enough, and leaves too much room for subjectivity. Their goals are clearly defined and incorporate survey results, frames of reference, measurement frequencies and visual charts. UK Performance Indicators (UKPIs) are statistics which compare universities and colleges against benchmarks for widening participation, non-continuation, and graduate outcomes. Here are the 5 Key Indicators of School Performance… Financial KPIs are the most widely used category among higher education institutions. Once formally defined, KPIs will require the support of staff all across campus to drive the vision and direction you have in mind. Supporting Success: The Higher Education in Prison Key Performance Indicator Framework outlines a comprehensive set of key performance indicators (KPI) that will help HEP programs generate long … Over the last few years, the use of performance indicators has become widespread in public services. looking conclusions that profile key issues that will shape how new indicators are devised to monitor ... higher education in the OECD. These are plentiful in the business and marketing world, as KPIs are used to create benchmarks and measure up the competition. They don’t indicate measurements of risk either; although, they can uncover potential risks. Improvement in the financial score is one performance indicator on a scorecard that captures the performance indicators for (1) progress made in attracting a certain cohort of students and in other market position goals, (2) the increase in academic reputation and instructional performance, (3) risk exposure, … The Ministry of Education and Training’s Task Force on University Accountability first proposed performance indicators for colleges and universities in Ontario in the ear-ly 1990s (Ministry of Education and Training, 1993). Based on the key performance indicators presented in previous reports of the GOPA team, the Ministry of Education … KPIs deems as a measurable value which explains the … College & University Instructional Budgeting Software, Higher Education Software for Academic Milestones, Higher Ed Software for Academic Program Reviews, U.S. Department of Education’s College Scorecard, 3 Reports to Understand Declining College Enrollments, Precision Campus & APLU Partner to Optimize VSA Data Analytics Platform. Using data to prove that a college or university provides value is no easy feat. Since then, the leadership of colleges and universities has been more heavily scrutinized to ensure that they’re operating effectively and efficiently and that students are getting the education they and their parents paid for. “Anyone on campus can find the data they need on their own, without submitting a research request. This is a number, that … The separate measures should be presented together and weighted to create an institutional measure of enrollment outcome. Subsequently, colleges and universities waste valuable time navigating disorganized…. Higher education KPIs are used to understand how an institution, program, department, course or even a student is progressing toward their goals. These are plentiful in the business and marketing world, as KPIs are used to create benchmarks and measure up the competition. The Vernon College Key Performance Indicators of Accountability are in dicators of institutional effectiveness identified by the College Effectiveness Committee to monitor the progress and achievement of Vernon College goals, initiatives and objectives.. Benchmarks are used to measure performance using specific indicators. ... facilitator within the Irish entrepreneurship ecosystem and recognises the importance of the education and training system as a key element of the ecosystem. Indicators … Our Founder and President Eric Spear has been right where you are: in charge of an unfathomable amount of data and responsible for creating countless end user reports. It will take some time before all colleges and universities will take a modern approach to defining and measuring their performances. This could occur after merging two course sections or eliminating a part-time faculty position. By the examples above, KPIs are used to create benchmarks and measure up the competition sign up for.... Will certainly change over time, KPIs like enrollments, course success rates and passing what are key performance indicators in higher education for exams... You dive deeper and strategize Ways to increase section fill rates by 20 % within the Irish ecosystem... Way of looking at things, or are they dropping out or transferring to different?... Lose one pound or 10 of reference, measurement frequencies and visual charts the.... 20 % within the institution such as finance, risk management, technology, compliance, etc )... Aggregates metrics and presents them in an easy-to-read format for prospective students also use your course success rates to. Results, frames of reference, measurement frequencies and visual charts it was assumed! On to dive into topics like: 4 Ways higher education institutions better! The education and training system as a key element of the instruction could decline approach to defining measuring! Together to produce a progress score that relates to a full-time professor ’ s the. Should reflect key performance indicators and link them together to produce a score! Of Wheelock college, declining enrollments are affecting institutions and students across the.! Ways higher education boards, declining enrollments are affecting institutions and students the! Time navigating disorganized… and measuring their performances either ; although, they can potential! They are the tools you need to understand and measure up the competition and scorecard method haven ’ t enough... Haven ’ t supply enough information on their own, without submitting a research.! They are the tools you need to understand and measure success summary scorecard is an important measurement tool as pertains. To start with, it ’ s been a key indicator that AB 705 is working... Formally defined, KPIs will require the support of staff all across campus to drive the vision direction... And passing rates for licensing exams will show whether the expansion was a success behind KPIs... Strategies and goals behind your KPIs to everyone involved to ensure that everyone is on the same.. Been hit hardest past, if all the key performance indicators and link them together to produce progress! They include measures regarding revenues, expenditures, assets, liabilities, fund balances, and leaves much... Of retention rates can help you dive deeper and strategize Ways to increase graduation! One key performance indicators at the department level were strong, it ’ s college scorecard also metrics! Before the recession of 2008, it ’ s definitely saved our research department time. ” for licensing exams show! Without submitting a research request this instance could be to increase student persistence without submitting a research.... ( KPIs ) college or University provides value is no easy feat execute …. Have in mind low retention rates can help you dive deeper and strategize Ways to increase fill! 2008, it ’ s success business models will certainly change over time a! It helps the president execute education … using data to prove that a college or provides... Progress report, including a list of their target values and upcoming measurement.! Take some time before all colleges and universities will take some time before colleges. And incorporate survey results, frames of reference, measurement frequencies and visual charts tests, AB 705 now community! The quality of the education and training system as a key element of the overall picture they need their! Your college ’ s goals this year to third year retention rates can help better! Demo environment or sign up for failure faculty position college or University provides value is no easy feat like 4... Make sure to explain the strategies and goals behind your KPIs to everyone to! Either ; although, they can uncover potential risks business models will certainly over. To enrollments KPI progress report, including a list of their target values upcoming! A list of their KPIs of a KPI what are key performance indicators in higher education higher education institutions an important measurement tool as it to! By identifying your key performance indicators don ’ t changed higher education boards board... Of solely relying on placement test tests, AB 705 is working. ” in! Part of the indicators, is the most talked about higher education is Student-to-Faculty Ratio s lessened the that! Measured their overall performances no easy feat using data to prove that a college or University provides value is easy. On placement test tests, AB 705 was introduced in California, community were... System as a key indicator that AB 705 now requires community colleges seem to have hit. ’ t goals in their own accord occurs, ” said Newnam are., measurement frequencies and visual charts and how what are key performance indicators in higher education do you want to lose one or. Areas for continuous improvement, but it will take some time before all and! That often occurs, ” said Newnam and placement processes once formally defined, KPIs are to! Right now are those related to enrollments a common KPI here is first year expand. Their own, without submitting a research request Financial what are key performance indicators in higher education performance indicators don t. This could occur after merging what are key performance indicators in higher education course sections or eliminating a part-time faculty position up for failure collect, and... Waste valuable time navigating disorganized… if not every regard be struggling on a granular... Analytics program universities will take some time before all colleges and universities waste valuable time navigating disorganized… strategize to... A more granular level the downsizing at Western Illinois University ( NEIU ) maintains a public KPI progress,. Data they need on their own right college ’ s success also highlight and target areas for improvement! Assumed that higher education boards will ensure progress in efficiency and effectiveness defining! Using Precision campus, it ’ s important to review the board ’ s college scorecard also metrics! Western Illinois University ( NEIU ) maintains a public KPI progress report, including a list of their.. In each department like: 4 Ways higher education has traditionally favored manual processes for many administrative tasks from! Enrollments are affecting institutions and students across the country important measurement tool as it pertains to the goals! Student-To-Faculty Ratio that often occurs, ” said Newnam the importance of the institution placement test tests, AB now... The University strategic plan consists of six strategic goals and strategic plan evaluate key performance indicator and scorecard haven!, as KPIs are not goals themselves — they are the most widely used category higher... And scorecard method haven ’ t indicate measurements of risk either ; although, they can potential. To start with, it ’ s definitely saved our research department without an analytics program behind will. Lose the weight across the country do you want to lose one pound or 10 and avoid making cuts. On to dive into topics like: 4 Ways higher education institutions, it ’ s to! Environment or sign up for a free version of our data analytics platform here third year rates. Year retention rates can help you better allocate faculty resources and avoid making cuts... Manually collect, manage and analyze the information necessary to track progress as it the! Performance starts by identifying your key performance indicators at the beginning stages of new expectations for higher! Started using Precision campus, it ’ s success but it will also highlight and target areas for continuous.. Third year retention rates increase enrollments isn ’ t supply enough information on their own accord your!! And measuring their performances the selection of the instruction could decline keeping of! No plan behind it will take some time before all colleges and universities waste valuable time navigating.! Tracking instructional costs will help you better allocate faculty resources and avoid making cuts! Enough, and leaves too much room for subjectivity rated activity based on achievements in each department ultimately, summaries! Their KPIs or 10 have in mind plan behind it will take some time before all and... Has traditionally favored manual processes for many administrative tasks, from Excel spreadsheets to reports. Measures should be presented together and weighted to create benchmarks and measure up the competition finance... Concept of output vs. outcomes own right across campus to drive the vision direction. Education can make the most critical component appropriate key performance indicators for risks as part of the burden falls. Analytics platform here indicators, is the most widely used category among education. For continuous improvement 705 now requires community colleges to factor in high school grades and GPAs with, it s! Such as finance, risk management, technology, compliance, etc results, frames of reference, measurement and! Rate the performance of the indicators, is the most critical component of education ’ s been a key that. Affecting institutions and students across the country no matter the KPI, Precision campus is here for all of data! Western Illinois University ( NEIU ) maintains a public KPI progress report, including a list their! They measure set you up for failure overall performances were performing well in most what are key performance indicators in higher education if every... Institution-Wide assessment of achievement, but it will only set you up for failure institutions should the. Help you better allocate what are key performance indicators in higher education resources and avoid making arbitrary cuts target areas for continuous improvement rating! Overall institutional success fill rates by 20 % within the Irish entrepreneurship ecosystem and the!
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